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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state which is located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula with a total land area of 273 square miles(707.1 square kilometers) and now becomes one of the most youngest nations in the world with high sucessful rating in almost all fields.
Sir Stamford Raffles, establishes a trading port on the island. Being an excellent location of island Harbour on the major sea routes between india and china it become a major Hub of all businesses.As the Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was the founder of this free-trade Harbour but the former Prime minister Lee Kaun Yew helps to make singapore as an independent nation and defined the path to its current success. Singapore seperated fron malaysia on 9 August 1965 and become an independent republic.
Since independence, Singapore's economy has grown up by an average of nine percent every year. By the 1990s, singapore become one of the world's most prosperous nations
And now its market imports total $319 billion & export total $337 billion.


Singapore “The lion head” was introduced in 1986 by the prince of Palembang “Sang nila Utama”. He saw a creature looking like a lion upon landing on island, he named that island as “Singa Pura” which means Lion city from which the name singapore was derived. According to the Government of the singapore the symbole of lion is to courage, strength and excellence. It is solid red with its white  background.

Foundation of modern singapore
Sir Stamford Raffles founded the modern singapore in 1819 by establishing a modern port and a gateway between the Western and Eastern markets. In 1818 , Raffles convinced Lord Hastings (governor-general of India) and their superiors to fund for the establishment of new british base in singapore region. It lays at the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, and having an excellent natural harbour, fresh water supplies, and timber for repairing ships. The british were expanding trade with China. Now the singapore become one of the most  important commercial and military centre of british empire
In 1824 Singapore, under the British Possession, was cemented by Anglo-Dutch Treaty. The area of north including Penang, Malacca and Singapore was designated as the british sphere of influence while the area of south of straits was designated to Dutch.In modern day Malaysia and singapore correspond to the british area established in treaty , and modern-day Indonesia to the Dutch. In 1826 Singapore was combined together with Penang and Malacca into a single administrative unit, called the Straits Settlements.

Loosing British Strongness
During world warII  singapore was under Japanese occupation. After  the war Singapore were placed under British Military Administration. In the after nath of the War, the country faced a serious problems of  unemployment, decaying infrastructure, Lack of housing facilities, labour strike and slow economic growth. With the passage of time there was more awakening among the local population and saw th erise of anti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, with the slogan “Merdeka” means “independence in malayan language. 
In 1959, Singapore became self-governing with its long lasting prime minister Lee Kuan Yew and in 1963, it joined the newly independent Federation of Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak--the latter two former British Borneo territories--to form Malaysia. In 9 August, 1965 due to the friction between Singapore and the central government in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore separated from Malaysia and became an independent republic.

Gaining Success
Singapore continue to fight against these problems and motivated them to increase the countries economy. Under the rule of Lee Kuan Yew the singaporean government was offencive in promoting export-oriented and labour-extensive industrilization through the program  of incentives to attract foreign currency. After all Singapore take the advantage of its fantastic location on major sea lanes.
By 1972, USA and Japan were the major investors  and now the major manufacturing firms of singapore become the joint venture companies or either foreign-owned. Singapore attracts the foreign investment funds on a large scale despite its relatively high-cost operating environment. Due to its favourable conditions of climate and investment its annual growth expands almost double every year.
In 1960-1970, With this development there is an boom in the jobs. Singaporean government provide subsidized housing, education, health services and public transportation generated new jobs in the public sector. Compulsory contributions by employer and employee provided the necessary funds to the government projects and financial security for the country's workers in their old age.
By the late 1970s, the government focused to skill and technology-intensive, high value-added industries and away from labor-intensive manufacturing. The information technology was given priority for expansion and Singapore became the world's largest producer of disk drives and disk drive parts in 1989. In the same year, around 30% of the country's GDP was due to earnings from manufacturing units.
In late 1980’s Singapore financial sector is fastest growing sector and contribute about 25% of the country’s GDP as a result of this Singapore ranked with Hong Kong as the  most important Asian financial centers after Tokyo.
 By 1990, Singapore played a role of master to more than 650 multinational companies and several thousand financial institutions and trading firms.

Singapore is treated as one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The annual growth rate for 2008 was 5.4%, including resident foreigners. Singapore is a combination of various  linguistic, cultural, and religious heritage. Singapore’s national language is Malay, but Chinese, English, and Tamil also are official languages. English is selected as the language of administration and also is widely used in the professions, businesses, and schools of singapore. The country's literacy rate is 96.0%.

General culture
Singapore allows the religious freedom, although religious groups are subject to government scrutiny, and some religious sects are restricted or banned. Singapore is the combination of different religions which includes Malays (Generally muslims),Taoists, Buddhists, Confucianists, Christians, Hindus, or Sikhs.

Languages spoken
Singapore has a mixture of four languages recognized by the Singapore government: English (the most widely spoken language), Mandarin, Malay and Tamil. The national language of Singapore remains Malay, it is English that is used as a working language for business. On the streets of Singapore many speak Singlish, a patois language called Singapore Colloquial English by academics.

Festivals in Singapore
Various celebrations are done in Singapore. Due to the mixture of cultures brings forth a variety of colorful festivals centered on religion, age-old myths and traditions or the family. Famous festivals celebrated in Singapore are:

  1. Chinese New Year - This is an exceptionally festive time for Singapore and it takes place for 42 days during January or February, depending on the Chinese calendar. The Chingay Parade is Singapore's grandest street festival which celebrates the Chinese New Year.
  2. Hari Raya Puasa – This signals the end of Ramadan with three days of celebrations.
  3. Thaipusam - This is held at the Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple and Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in Little India.
  4. Singapore Fashion Festival - This offers a preview to the season’s trendiest styles through a series of fashion shows.
  5. Singapore Arts Festival - This is an eclectic mix of dance, drama and music from around the world.
  6. National Day - The National Day Parade promises a fun-filled occasion with cultural dances and fireworks.
  7. Deepavali - This is a very important Hindu holiday where Little India's streets and temples are decorated with lights and garlands and crowds gather in the Sri Mariamman Temple to watch the barefoot Hindu devotees walk across a pit of red hot embers.
  8. Singapore River Buskers' Festival - Talented street performers from around the world gather on the walkways of Orchard Road, along the Singapore riverbank and Marina Bay.
  9. Singapore River Fiesta - The event features a calendar of exciting activities all held at the nation's historic river.
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